Posts Tagged ‘Linux

12
Jun
15

Linux Misinformation

I’ve been using Linux in it’s various forms for quite some time (around 15 years) in one form or another. I quite like some aspects of it, and now with modern distributions it has become a decent contender for a main stream desktop operating system. However there is a lot of misinformation floating around the net about just how good it is, and after stumbling upon a website called www.whylinuxisbetter.net I thought it might be an idea to dispel some of these myths.

It is often claimed that Linux doesn’t get viruses, which is blatantly not true. I’ve personally cleaned viruses and worms from Linux machines owned by clients. Granted many of these were because of poor decisions made by the person responsible for the machine, but this is also frequently true of infections on windows PCs. Also other OS’s such as Mac OSX and the various flavours of BSD use many of the same tools and are roughly at least as secure as Linux, if not arguably more so.

Linux is often said to be more reliable or stable than windows. This is something that was true historically when comparing Linux to say Windows ME or 98. But compared to a machine with Windows XP sp3 or later? Not really. I used to repair many windows machines during the hey-day of windows XP and the main causes of instability were hardware and third-party software, hardly Microsoft’s fault. For the most part Linux has little third party software to speak of, so only hardware could cause faults. Linux is not immune to hardware faults or third-party drivers.

Hardware support in the form of drivers is another bug-bear for many people. Sure you don’t have to install drivers for most of your hardware under Linux, but if your particular hardware isn’t supported you have little recourse but to get different hardware. I found this recently with a Creative sound card not functioning correctly. Sure there was a kernel module for it, but it didn’t work correctly and I didn’t have time to trawl the vast technical documents to fix it. Under windows this would have been a five minute install the correct driver job.

That doesn’t count the fact that you still do need to worry about drivers for you graphics card. Xorg will work with most hardware out of the box, but with little or no acceleration. If you own an Nvidia or AMD graphics card you need to have installed their third-party driver to really get the best out of your card. Some distributions like Ubuntu have packages for these drivers, but because they are non-free many distributions do not install them or make them available by default.

Other hardware that requires third-party drivers also exists but is fairly unusual. When you do need to install these kernel modules it is not as simple as running a driver wizard under windows. You usually have to compile the module from source which requires a certain amount of technical ability. It’s not all that hard if you know how, but the average user would not cope.

If you’re using older hardware, there is generally pretty good support, except for more obscure hardware. Performance wise it all really depends on your definition of old. A machine say less than 5 years old will work fine in most cases, but be a little sluggish. Older machines however struggle unless you’re willing to make compromises to improve performance. So whilst using older hardware is possible, some things will be unavoidably slower. Much of this is down to the software rather than the OS, so for something like Firefox you can expect similar performance as with windows on the same machine.

Getting software is another interesting point. All Linux distributions have a nice package system that allows you to get software that you need fairly easily. The software available is of varying quality however, some being very good like OpenOffice or GIMP, whilst others aren’t anywhere near as good.

Also older software disappears from the packaging systems once development has stopped or development focus has shifted elsewhere. There is much older software available on other Unixes such as FreeBSD that has disappeared from Linux repositories, some of them still being quite useful, or entertaining in the case of older Unix games. If you use Linux for long enough expect some of your favourite software to change dramatically or disappear, even after just updating your machine. This happens because of the focus amongst some distributions on being cutting edge rather than retaining compatibility or useful software.

The main problem with getting software for Linux (or any BSD for that matter) is that if it is not in the package repository/system it is incredibly difficult to get and install most of the time. It’s difficult to distribute binaries out side of the packaging system for simple download and install on Linux systems. It can be done, but most of the time source code is distributed instead. Again this requires technical knowledge most people don’t have, and this doesn’t include the possible dependency hell involved in the process. If you think about downloading software for Windows or Mac OSX, they are much simpler, you download an installer and away you go, and developers provide good installers for both most of the time.

Updating can also be troublesome, I’ve had updates on several distributions severely break my system or software. Updates to the kernel or X can also result in needing to re-install graphic drivers just to get the display to work again. This varies wildly from distribution to distribution depending on how they perform updates and technical information.

I could cover more of the points in the list, but I think I’ve made my point. For each OS whether it be Windows, Linux, Mac OSX, or a BSD there are a number of advantages and trade-offs. I’m not saying Linux is bad by any stretch, but it does have many of the same issues and issues all of it’s own that can and will put off many end users. We have to remember most end users can not do many of the things that could be required of them when running a Linux system.

10
Dec
14

Redhat Enterprise Linux 7.0 Workstation

At work I have been using Redhat Enterprise Linux 6 for some time to run some multimedia equipment. With the need to upgrade to new software and hardware I’ve had to also look at upgrading the OS to meet some of the requirements for the new software. The new version has some significant “upgrades” in the form of using Gnome 3 and systemd, lets see how good they are.

The desktop

The desktop

Gnome 3 is a significant departure from the previous version, it is clearly heavily influenced by Mac OSX and tablet interfaces. Personally I am not a huge fan. Most of the customisation features that were in Gnome 2.x have been removed. Some I miss the most are placing application launchers and widgets on panels and having a proper visual pager for the work spaces. There seems to be very little option for any customisation at all.

There are some small improvements however. The configuration dialogue for the network setup is nice and simple, but still allows for more advanced settings if required. The calendar is cleaner and incorporates your schedule information in the display. Still it somehow feels very uninspired.

Mac OSX like controls

Mac OSX like controls

Even the lock screen leaves something to be desired. It expects you to uncover the password entry box by swiping upwards or doing the equivalent with your mouse before you can enter your password and unlock the screen. This is annoying every time I come back to my computer as it adds an extra step to an otherwise simple process, it is completely unnecessary. From what I can tell it was added simply as eye candy.

Gnome 3 certainly isn’t ugly, it is full of eye candy everywhere. Lots of animations and fades that you couldn’t do on older hardware because of performance concerns. But I find the lack of customisation features makes the desktop feel sterile, I can’t make it my own, which is something I’d expect from Apple, not a open source desktop environment.

Systemd components (from wikipedia)

Systemd components (from wikipedia)

Systemd is the other perhaps more controversial change, there has been much debate and flaming across the internet from both sides. Basically it is a replacement for sysvinit and a number of other small daemons such as cron and the login process. I did note in this instance that RHEL 7 still includes and runs crond and rsyslogd even though systemd has replacements. I’m guessing they are _trying_ to ease the pain of migration.

I had a look into the configuration files for systemd, and whilst they are at least readable and you can edit them, there are many options that aren’t clear. It is however easier than the old configuration system under sysvinit, but no-where near as nice as the RC system under BSD which is much easier to handle. The thing I felt was the most concerning is the binary log files, which fortunately you don’t need on RHEL 7.0 because of rsyslogd logging in a readable format.

The settings windows

The settings windows

There are many technical issues with systemd that could and should be addressed, but I don’t think they are really the source of most of the conflict. It seems to me that the proponents of systemd have cleverly and somewhat underhandedly managed to force a number of larger Linux distributions to use it. The long and short of it is that because they managed to merge udev into it, and have been swallowing other small important services, it is forcing its way into many distributions regardless of merit. Using such means was always going to upset many people. If they had only replaced sysvinit instead of swallowing up so much and behaved better when it came to bugs and criticism, many people would have fewer or no arguments against it.

On a technical level I understand why systemd was made, sysvinit was a bit of a pain, although extremely flexible. But I disagree with them replacing and swallowing other services into the main init package. Larger more complex software is more likely to have bugs and security flaws, and the init process is perhaps the most important one in terms of security. The fact that they have practically coerced people into using it is distasteful. It seems that the systemd devs are attempting to co-opt the entire Linux eco-system to control for themselves.

File Broswer

File Broswer

I don’t know why OpenRC wasn’t adopted as it’s a quite nice clone of the BSD rc.d system which I’ve found _very_ easy to use and works very well. The problem now is that systemd has incorporated important parts of the Linux OS that now make it difficult to use anything else, and will likely make implementing portability to BSD difficult but not impossible. I suspect that a compatibility layer will eventually be created for the BSD systems.

I didn’t mean this to be a rant about systemd or gnome 3, but there is little else to talk about in the base install of RHEL 7.0. It was pretty bare bones, which isn’t such a bad thing, but it was even lacking some of the useful system tools such as the disk utility. I found many packages seem to be older than they should be, which has caused some minor issues, but this is something common to the older releases. I’ll still end up using this RHEL due to requirements at work that are unavoidable, but I won’t be recommending it to anyone that can avoid it.

I was considering using a form of Linux on my home desktop system to replace the ageing windows install, but seeing Gnome 3 and systemd has made me reconsider my position. I’m seriously thinking FreeBSD may be better for me, but if I do install a Linux it will likely be Debian, as that is generally a bit friendlier to power users. I’ll almost certainly not use Gnome and systemd if possible, but given the politcs currently in process that may become difficult.

24
Aug
14

OS Shootout: Trying to get the Sun Frame Buffer to work.

Frame buffer

Frame buffer

Quite a while ago I bought a Sun frame buffer (Wildcat Expert3d-lite) on ebay in the hopes of turning either my Sun Fire machines into a workstation. I had FreeBSD on the 280R and Gentoo Linux on the V440. FreeBSD didn’t like the card as it doesn’t have support for it, the version I have installed has become out of date and was having trouble updating packages. The Gentoo install had suffered a similar fate, I went to update it and found that the package system had become broken and couldn’t download the latest update.

So this weekend I decided to try a number of different operating systems to see if I could get the frame buffer working and see if there was a newer OS that would work better. Here are some notes about the different systems I’ve tried.

I decided to use the V440 as the base machine for performing the tests. I had been using Gentoo linux on it and had some minor success using the frame buffer. I was able to get a basic text console working beautifully, and it even displayed Tux the Linux penguin during boot up. But unfortunately the fbdev driver for X didn’t work producing some horrific corruption on screen, but the mouse and keyboard appeared to work.

Sunfire V440

Sunfire V440

The first fresh OS I decided to try out was NetBSD as it works well on my older Sparc machine. The installation went relatively smoothly, but I had to use the serial console in order to do it. I looked for support for my particular frame buffer but didn’t find any, even for some of the other available hardware. At this point I went to the documentaion online and realised I need not have tried it as the UltaSparc machines I have are not in the supported list for NetBSD. Although most hardware works, it seems that older machine are supported much better.

Next I decided to try the latest FreeBSD, the first time around I was using 8.3 which was quickly superseeded, but it was the only one that worked on the Sunfire 280R. So I downloaded the latest at the time of writing this, 10.0. Reading the documentation seemed to indicate that I’d be unlikely to get anything on this frame buffer at all, but if I buy a different type in the future there is good support. The installer was much easier than last time, again it required the serial terminal but it had everything set up very quickly. Of course the downside is the amount of time needed to build packages from ports, but thats a minor inconvenience if you leave it to build over night. I built and installed X, and with no surprise this frame buffer didn’t work.

In searching the internet for systems that support this particular device I came across OpenBSD. I had not really tried it out before so I didn’t know what to expect, but my hardware was listed as supported including the frame buffer. So I downloaded the install CD and began the process of installing. Compared to the other systems the installer is very _very_ basic, but at least you could do it from the computers console. Unfortunately I couldn’t get this one to complete installing, as the system rebooted every time it tried to extract the base system. At first I thought it likely this would be a hardware fault (as I had some in preparation for this) but I ran the system through its diagnostics multiple times and it passed every time. I may transfer the frame buffer into the SunFire 280R and try this system out again, but I think there’s something wrong with the installer/disc. The real shame is I saw in the kernel messages that it does indeed support my card!

Lastly I returned to an old favourite, Debian Linux. It is similar to Gentoo in that it supports the basic hardware and some framebuffers. Since Gentoo had some basic functionality I hope Debian might work better. I booted up the installer and was surprised to get the normal console-based Debian installer on the machines frame buffer. The installer was nice and easy, no major problems. I reboot into the new installation to see what would happen. Just like Gentoo the text console worked beautifully on the frame buffer, but X didn’t work. You could see the login screen behind some kind of strange corruption, but it seemed the keyboard and mouse were working as I could log in! I suspect Debian would work very nicely if I had a different frame buffer, but perhaps the guys working on the kernel will eventually fix the wildcat support.

So to summarise I found that Debian and FreeBSD would be quite workable if I had another frame buffer (or didn’t want to use it) and that OpenBSD might work well with this one if I could just manage to work out why it is crashing during install. NetBSD just doesn’t support the newer UltraSparc hardware well enough to use with a frame buffer, but might work quite well as a server. Basically I’m going to have to get another frame buffer card, then I can install either FreeBSD or Debian and have quite a nice Sun workstation.

14
Apr
14

Artsoft games on NetBSD

R'n'D Menu Screen

R’n’D Menu Screen

Today I am looking at two games for Unix systems called Rocks’n’Diamonds (R’n’D for short) and Mirror Magic. Both were developed by Artsoft which seems to consist of one person, Holger Schemel. Both games are sort of clones of older games for much older platforms. Rock’n’Diamonds is a Boulder Dash like game that was first released in 1995 and last updated at the end of 2013. Mirror magic is very much like Deflektor, originally released in 1995 and updated until 2003. Whilst both games are based on older games they both add features to the old formula. Today I’ve built and played these under NetBSD on my SparcStation 20.

Text Box

Text Box

Being made by the same person, both games share some similarities, particularly in the art style. The menus and sprites are very colourful, they almost look like they belong at a carnival. Everything is well drawn, animated and items look like they should. Items brought over from the older games have been updated graphically, they don’t look identical to the originals but are also easily identifiable for players of the old games.

Green Goo

Green Goo

They run of the same graphics engine originally developed for R’n’D which supports X11 and SDL mainly. The X11 versions work quite well, even on exceptionally old hardware like my old SparcStation 20 which is quite impressive. They work moderately well over longer distances via SSH, but the latency and bandwidth can be a problem on slower links whilst LAN speeds works flawlessly. There is a SDL version, but the version I installed (from Macports on my macbook) seems to be significantly slower than even X over SSH. This is hopefully just something peculiar to the Macports version on Mac OSX.

Playing Via SSH

Playing Via SSH

Both also have the same sort of sound engine and from what I can experience on the Macports version they are good for what they are. I only got to test sound in R’n’D and unfortunately during game play you can get swamped with the same sounds playing repetitively. So you might enjoy your playing experience more with the sound off. Playing on NetBSD on the old Sparc machine this wasn’t an issue as sound doesn’t work there.

Mirror Magic Menu Screen

Mirror Magic Menu Screen

The game play for R’n’D is interesting in that it combines elements from games such as Boulder Dash and Sokoban, and includes most of the elements added by Supaplex and Emerald Mines to Boulder Dash. The game has three game engines that any level can use. Rocks’n’Diamonds, Supaplex and Emerald Mines. The later allowing levels from those games to be played and solved as they are in the original. I haven’t played enough of the levels to give a good impression of what they are like as a whole, but those that I have played have been fun. I did try levels from the older games and they seemed to work quite well.

Holy balls of steel!

Holy balls of steel!

Mirror Magic similarly has its roots in older games, specifically Deflektor and Mindbender. Basically there is a Laser, a bunch of mirrors, obstacles, and stuff to destroy in the levels. You need to direct the laser with the mirrors to destroy objects in the way and get the beam to the target. Usually this requires destroying all of the metal spheres in the level. You have a limited amount of fuel, and the laser can over heat if the beam hits the wrong type of object. It’s important to keep an eye on both the fuel and heat gauges as running out of fuel or over heating can sneak up on you. What I’ve played so far has been quite fun, although I was disappointed that only levels from the old games were included.

Balls busted

Balls busted

Both games have a level editor which is easy to use. The editor in R’n’Ds is quite flexible and allows users to create their own custom objects that behave differently to the stock ones. This allows people to make all sorts of different creations, one even claiming to have recreated Zelda! There are lots of different level packs available on the Artsoft website for R’n’Ds, but not really any for Mirror Magic. In either case, if you do happen to beat all the levels there is still lots of gameplay in the user created levels and building some of your own.

What Mc Duffin?

What Mc Duffin?

Despite being based on older games that are well known, I think both of these games bring something new to the table. R’n’Ds brings many more levels including user created ones and variety in game play that the original games didn’t have. Mirror Magic is a decent remake of the originals with the addition of a level editor. Both run on Windows, Mac OSX, Linux, and BSD. There is even a DOS port of both although the port of R’n’Ds is a little out of date. If you like any of the old games on which these are based you might wanna give them a try.

14
Nov
13

Some words on X windows

I’ve recently been reading about and watching a few videos about the replacement for X called Wayland. Now I know very little about Wayland itself, but I’ve been a user of X since about 1999 when I first went to university, so I can’t help it, I feel moved to write about my current and old experiences. X is actually really quite an old protocol and was designed with different goals in mind than those modern desktop environments have today. The history is written all over the internet so I won’t repeat it, but it is evident that X was originally meant for the X-terminal connected to a mainframe case that was so very common at the point of its inception.

One of the questions asked was “what does X do well?”

Lincity via SSH

Lincity via SSH

The core of the X protocol is based around drawing primitives such as lines and circles but also includes pixmaps (bitmaps for those who don’t speak X). Here is an example screen shot of a program, lincity, that was one of the first games I wrote about here on my blog. In this case I’m running it through an SSH tunnel over an ADSL line with a maximum upload rate (to the X server) of about 75Kb/s. Because of the way X works lincity is not only able to draw to my remote display, but is able to animate the play area at a reasonable rate. This situation is something which VNC and RDP just can’t do over my connection. The remote machine running lincity is my old Sparcstation 20 with 2x 50Mhz supersparc processors, running a pkgsrc build at the same time.

Working remotely

Working remotely

Here is another screenshot of me monitoring my old Sparc, again doing a pkgsrc build (they take a long time with only 50Mhz you know). I’m able to get real time performance graphs and interactive terminals, all using about 5-7Kb/s data through a SSH tunnel, and much less when the remote windows are not visible on the screen. This kind of use if very common for me, not just to old machines, but also modern ones that are around my workplace, X and SSH makes it easy to start a program from any machine. This is very handy for testing and I can run software from home or work as I need.

XDMCP Chooser

XDMCP Chooser

My machines at home are running NetBSD, FreeBSD and Gentoo currently and whilst some of them are capable, none currently have a head attached. So I frequently use XDMCP and a X server on my windows machine to access them, and it works basically flawlessly. I realise this is a less common situation now, but with thin clients becoming all the rage in different forms, it seems this feature of X could be exploited more.

FVWM on my Sparc

FVWM on my Sparc

I love that there is so much variety in window managers and that there are light ones that make even my oldest machine quite usable with recent operating systems. Pictured here is my nostalgic favourite FVWM, which incidentally is still being maintained and developed. Windowmaker, openbox, fluxbox, etc, all deserve to exist and have a dedicated user base. They are interesting and useful, but mostly truly light-weight, making using older hardware viable. People like myself who collect and use old hardware find this useful to keep life in their old pride-and-joys.

No matter how it is implemented under the hood, for users the network feature of X is seamless and very easy to use, in no small part due to the hard work of the X11 developers, many of whom are working on Wayland. So what motivated the big change?

One of the major factors is X is becoming too large and difficult a project to develop and manage. A contributing factor to this is the explosion in extensions to it that made it kind of bloated. It seems they were sort of added willy-nilly (mostly during the Xfree86 days) to meet the demands of people developing the more eye-candy based style desktop environments we see now. Fortunately the X developers have been cutting much of the debris out of the extensions and have made the X server modular. Now if only the X server was actually installed/packaged in separate modules for each extension and the core it might make having a slimmer server easier, but as far as I know that’s not possible.

Personally I’ve not had much trouble with X. I mostly had problems with getting proprietary drivers to work for my GPU back in the Xfree86 days, but I’ve not had that problem in ages. I have only really seen the flickering that has been talked about over high latency network connections, never over any LAN I’ve ever used. I understand that it probably does have huge design flaws, and that a newer system and design is needed to meet the needs of new desktop environments. I just feel somehow, that when it’s gone I’ll miss X.

26
Aug
13

VegaStrike

Controls

Controls

Vega Strike is an open world space exploration, trading and combat simulator much like the classic games Elite and Elite Frontier. I originally played the 0.43 release many years ago and I thoroughly enjoyed playing it, although that version had some annoying properties such as other vessels appearing out of no where! Fortunately since then the development community has been very active and the recent releases have fixed many bugs and added new content to the game.

The Basic Cockpit

The Basic Cockpit

The game is rendered in 3d using OpenGL acceleration. It supports many different levels of detail and shaders as well as an older rendering engine for those of us with older hardware. Most modern systems shouldn’t have any trouble getting a decent frame-rate, but on older machines it could be slow if not configured properly. Fortunately even some on board graphics and Atom based systems have been tested and have been able to run the game.

Approaching a Fighter Barracks

Approaching a Fighter Barracks

The artwork in the game is of decent quality and has been gradually replacing the older graphics from earlier releases. Additionally many new ships and other features have been added to the engine that have improved the visuals. There are however some visual aspects that could use work such as the vessel cockpits.

The sound and music in game are also quite nice, especially the music. A good professional job has been done for the most part, it just requires a bit of polish to bring everything up to the same standard.

Relay Station

Relay Station

The game is as I said inspired by the classic games Elite and it’s sequels which is reflected in the game play. You start out with a basic trading ship and some money which you can buy some cargo. So you have to start out as a trader in order to make enough money to buy a more capable ship. You can buy upgrades to make your starting ship a bit better in combat, but it’s really only sufficient to fend off pirates.

Asteroid Mining Station

Asteroid Mining Station

Eventually you’ll be able to buy a larger ship or fighter for combat duties. You’ll be able to buy a larger freighter if you want to move more or larger goods, but the downside is that the ship often is slow to maneuver and takes some time to accelerate. In buying a combat vessel you’ll be significantly faster, but won’t be able to carry much in the way of cargo. There are capital ships that are much larger, but they are extremely expensive and difficult to find.

Unfortunately there are many ships that can’t be purchased, and there are many weapons what seem unbalanced or difficult to use effectively. I’ve found the best kind of weapons to use currently are the beam weapons with auto-tracking in the mount. The development team seems to be aware of this, and it seems to be a result of many changes to the engine since 0.43 and the many new ships/weapons that have been added since.

Planets

Planets

Vega Strike being as unfinished and under development as it is, needs to be polished and balanced before reaching its full potential. Even so I’ve been playing it for some time and still found it to be quite fun. I’ve managed to accumulate a nice small fleet of ships including freighters and combat vessels, but have quite some way to go before I can take on a bigger combat job. Once you find a few lucrative trading runs, and get a basic combat ship flying you can take on any role you like within the limitations of your ships.

I’d recommend people use the latest release of the game that they can, or if you have the capability use the development version (available from subversion). This is so you can keep up with the latest data set updates and engine updates as there are constant improvements. It’s available on both Windows and Linux, I’m unsure as to whether it will work on other systems such as BSD or Mac OS.

29
Jul
13

The Battle for Wesnoth

Main Menu

Main Menu

The Battle for Wesnoth is an open source game project that had its first release back in 2003. It is a strategy game based in a fantasy world with many RPG like elements. Today I’m playing it on my Macbook running Mac OS X (Lion), but the game also works on many other platforms including Linux, Windows, and most BSD systems. I have been able to get it running on my sun UltraSPARC sunfire v440 which I have Gentoo Linux on currently.

Campaign Selection

Campaign Selection

Upon starting up the game and being greeted with the menu system, I was struck with how professional the game looks. The menus, backgrounds and graphics all appear of professional quality as soon as you see them. The menu system is easy to use, and gives you help when faced with something more complex. The music is equally epic as soon as you first hear it, bringing to mind epic battles before you’ve had a chance to fight any.

Starting area

Starting area

The game offers a tutorial mode which I highly recommend, not so much because playing is difficult, but it is a much more gentle way to get used to the way the game works. The tutorial teaches you all the basics of movement, combat, and recruiting new soldiers. I found within no time I had managed to get the hang of it, and had managed victory in the tutorial and the earlier part of a introductory campaign.

Combat

Combat

The game has many campaigns of different difficulty and length, meaning there is always a campaign to suite your skill level and amount of time available. Many members of the community have created extra content including campaigns, new resources and units all for you to enjoy in single player or multi-player. Of course if you have played through all the created content there is also the option of playing random maps, or creating new ones of your own.

Recruiting

Recruiting

In addition to the single player, hot seat, network and internet multiplayer games are all supported. Connecting and playing any of these modes is simple and easy to do. Although you need to be well prepared to play online.

Playing the game I’ve found the controls fairly easy to use and have had no trouble getting my armies to do what I want. There is however an incredible amount of depth in the stories for the campaigns and the number of stats the units can have along with their effect in battle.

Killing Mordak

Killing Mordak

Combat in particular is interesting. There are two main types, Melee and Ranged combat. Different types of units can perform one or both of these different types of combat. Interestingly if you attack someone with a ranged attack and they have no ranged capability then their unit cannot retaliate and you unit will emerge unharmed whilst theirs does not. This can also happen with Melee combat if the other unit has no melee capability.

Whilst all the attacks units have are either ranged or melee, they also can have other properties such as being magical attacks. These modifiers can change the effect of the damage, the chance to hit, and inflict poison or drain health from an opponent.

Victory!

Victory!

Units are much like characters in a role playing game, they have attack capabilities in various forms, traits that affect their stats, and they have health points and experience points. Units can level up and get upgraded down one of a few paths in an upgrade tree. There are only a few levels to upgrade to depending on the unit, I think most get to level 3 or 4. Upgrades can significantly improve a unit so this is understandable. Players need to try and hold onto their strong and experienced units longer as they are much more effective than the base units you can recruit. If you are in the middle of a campaign you can recall units from the last scenario you played to benefit from them having more experience and perhaps being higher level.

Your main avatar can recruit new units when in the main castle. This requires gold that you acquire by occupying villages. Villages will support one unit for free and earn you some gold, which can be spent on support for more units, or on recruiting more units. Villages will also provide a defense bonus and heal units stationed there. This makes villages an important asset in the game, as you need them for income and to heal your experienced and important soldiers.

Campaign story

Campaign story

The Battle for Wesnoth is very polished, it is pretty much the same or better than commercial games quality wise. I’ve not run into any bugs in the limited time I’ve been playing. Installing add-ons and getting online for internet play is seamlessly handled in the game UI itself, removing any need for manually extracting files or arranging servers. It works on a wide variety of platforms so getting a version for your system should be no problem. If you like strategy games I highly recommend it.




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